Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Watermark

An image, logo, or symbol embedded in a sheet of paper that identifies the mill at which the paper was made as well as the paper type/style, and in some cases, a date. The mill’s logo is woven with wire into the mesh of the paper mould and as a result less pulp collects on top and around the image making that area of the page thinner. Watermarks, which are typically located in the lower right corner of a sheet of paper, are often only visible when the sheet of paper is held in front of a light.

Wood engraving

The appearance and line quality of a wood engraving is similar to that of a copperplate engraving. The lines are rigid, noticeably tapered at the ends, and vary in thickness and length to create tone and texture. Wood and copper differ insofar as a copper engraving is printed using an intaglio technique where the incised lines receive ink, and print on paper as black. Wood engravings are printed in relief; the ink is rolled onto the surface, so the incised lines remain white.

Danish: Træsnit
Dutch: Houtsnede
French: Gravure sur bois
German: Holzstich
Italian: Incisione in legno, xilografia
Spanish: Grabado en madera
Swedish: Træsnitt

Woodcut

Illustrations produced when the original printing plate was engraved on a block of wood. One of the oldest methods of printing, dating back to eigth century China.

French: Gravure sur bois
German: Holzschnitt
Swedish: Träsnitt

Wrappers

The paper covers of a pamphlet, often of a paper of heavier weight than the text paper; when you see “wrappers” you know the item is not a hard bound book, but is instead a pamphlet or magazine with paper covers.

French: Couverture, jaquette